Medical Translation – The Brain

It seems like yesterday when I thought about creating a blog and publishing articles related to the translation area. In fact, it has been a year since “Arca do Saber” was published.

For that reason, I am here to celebrate its first anniversary with an article related to an area of my expertise as a translator: Life Science. In this English article, you will learn about the most important part of our body, especially for a translator: the brain. You will also find specific terminologies related to this complex organ.

For those who, like me, are medical translators, enjoy yourselves!

 

How does our brain work?

The human brain is an amazing organ. It weighs about 1.4 kilograms, in the adult phase, and is one of the most complex organs in the human body. The brain contains more than 100 billion nerve cells called “neurons” and trillions of connections called “synapses”. It makes part of the central nervous system (CNS), being responsible for controlling all functions of our body: movements, thoughts, emotions, the five senses (smell, touch, taste, sight and hearing), memory, speech, and others.

 

PARTS OF THE BRAIN

Cerebrum – the cerebral cortex is the largest part of the brain, which is divided into two hemispheres: left and right.

  • The left hemisphere is basically responsible for our speech, logical thoughts, comprehension and communicative functions.
  • The right hemisphere is primarily in charge of our creativity, artistic skills, feelings and emotions.

Cerebellum – it is located under the cerebrum and coordinates our motor movements and is divided into the following lobes: frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal.

  • Frontal lobe – it manages our speech, thoughts, concentration, intelligence, emotions, planning, judgement and other rationale functions
  • Parietal lobe – it is basically responsible for processing sensory and cognitive information
  • Occipital lobe – it is the vision control center
  • Temporal lobe – it involves the auditory process: hearing, comprehension, emotional responses

Brainstem – it connects the cerebrum and the cerebellum to the spinal cord and it controls the sleep cycle, breathing, heart rate, blood pressure.

Basal ganglia – it is a group of neurons located in the center of the brain. It coordinates messages between multiple other brain areas.

The brain is surrounded by three layers of protective tissue called “meninges”. Also, there is the skull, composed of the cranium and the mandible, which protects the brain from injury.

 

Do you want to learn more about the terms related to the brain? 

 

So let’s see some of them with their respective translations into Brazilian Portuguese.

 

PARTS OF THE BRAIN:

ENGLISH

PORTUGUESE (BR)

Amygdala

Amígdala

Basal ganglia

Gânglios basais

Brain

Cérebro

Brainstem

Tronco cerebral

Central nervous system (CNS)

Sistema nervoso central (SNC)

Cerebellar hemisphere

Hemisfério cerebelar

Cerebellum

Cerebelo

Cerebral cortex

Córtex cerebral

Cranial nerves

Nervos cranianos

Cranium

Crânio

Encéphale

Encéfalo

Frontal lobe

Lobo frontal

Frontal section of brain

Seção frontal do cérebro

Gray matter

Substância cinzenta ou massa cinzenta

Hippocampus

Hipocampo

Hypothalamus

Hipotálamo

Left hemisphere

Hemisfério esquerdo

Mandible

Mandíbula

Meninges

Meninges

Neurons

Neurônios

Occipital lobe

Lobo occipital

Parietal lobe

Lobo parietal

Pituitary gland

Glândula pituitária

Right hemisphere

Hemisfério direito

Scalp

Escalpo

Sensory cortex

Córtex sensorial

Skull

Crânio

Spinal cord

Espinha dorsal, coluna vertebral ou medula espinhal

Synapses

Sinapses

Temporal lobe

Lobo temporal

White matter

Substância branca

SOME DISEASES RELATED TO THE BRAIN:

ENGLISH

PORTUGUESE (BR)

Alzheimer’s Disease

Doença de Alzheimer

Anorexia

Anorexia

Anxiety

Ansiedade

Atherosclerosis

Aterosclerose

Attention Deficit

Déficit de atenção

Bipolar Disorder

Transtorno bipolar

Brain Abscess

Abscesso cerebral

Brain Aneurysm

Aneurisma cerebral

Brain Cancer/Brain Tumor

Câncer cerebral ou tumor cerebral

Bulimia

Bulimia

Cerebral Edema

Edema cerebral

Cerebrovascular accident (CVA)

Acidente vascular cerebral (AVC)

Concussion

Concussão

Dementia

Demência

Depression

Depressão

Encephalitis

Encefalite

Epidural Hematoma

Hematoma epidural

Epilepsy

Epilepsia

Glioblastoma

Glioblastoma

Headache

Cefaleia

Huntington’s Disease

Doença de Huntington

Hydrocephalus

Hidrocefalia

Hypertension

Hipertensão

Insanity

Insanidade ou demência

Intracerebral hemorrhage

Hemorragia intracerebral

Labyrinthitis

Labirintite

Meningitis

Meningite

Meningococcal Meningitis

Meningite meningocócica

Migraine

Enxaqueca

Multiple Sclerosis

Esclerose múltipla

Parkinson’s Disease

Mal de Parkinson ou Doença de Parkinson

Postpartum Depression/Baby Blues

Depressão pós-parto

Psychosis

Psicose

Schizophrenia

Esquizofrenia

Sleep Disorders

Distúrbios do sono

Stress

Estresse

Stroke

Derrame ou acidente vascular cerebral

Subdural Hematoma

Hematoma subdural

Traumatic Brain Injury

Traumatismo craniano ou lesão cerebral traumática

 

SOME TREATMENTS RELATED TO THE BRAIN:

ENGLISH

PORTUGUESE (BR)

Antibiotics

Antibióticos

Antiplatelet Agents

Agentes antiplaquetários

Brain Surgery

Neurocirurgia ou cirurgia cerebral

Cholinesterase Inhibitors

Inibidores de colinesterases

Craniotomy

Craniotomia

Levodopa

Levodopa ou L-Dopa

Lumbar drain

Drenagem lombar

Radiation Therapy

Radioterapia

Thrombolytics

Trombolíticos

Ventriculostomy

Ventriculostomia

 

SOMES TESTS RELATED TO THE BRAIN:

ENGLISH

PORTUGUESE (BR)

Angiography

Angiografia

Brain biopsy

Biópsia cerebral

Computed tomography (CT scan)

Tomografia computadorizada (TC)

Electroencephalogram (EEG)

Eletroencefalograma (EEG)

Lumbar puncture (spinal tap)

Punção lombar

Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA)

Angiografia por ressônancia magnética (ARM)

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

Imagem por ressonância magnética (IRM) ou ressonância magnética nuclear (RMN)

Neurocognitive testing

Teste neurocognitivo